As far as a two-way interaction effect is concerned, the interac-, significant. Total fertility rate for West Bengal (2011). respective crude birth rate (CBR), TFR, and growth rates. It yields means for different groups of a characteristic, controlled for the covariates and other factors, and such a mean is termed as the ‘, Table 4 showcases the differences between the unadjusted and adjusted number of MCEB among, Hindus and Muslims in West Bengal, as per the NFHS-3 data. Yes, the 0-6 year population data shows that Muslims do have higher fertility rates. Results from the logistic regression analysis further reveals that the influence of women’s educational level on contraceptive use remains highly significant even after factoring in other socioeconomic and cultural variables. Contact us for a consultation! As a consequence of this lag in fertility decline, among Muslims, the differentials in fertility have widened and could be a possible reason for lower, fertility among Hindus in West Bengal. relevant socioeconomic parameters in the analysis. It pro-. The total fertility rate of India stands at 2.2 as of 2017. So with the above perspectives, the present study was undertaken with objectives of assessing Perception of married women(15‑49 years) in a district of West Bengal, India, regarding different components of fertility and to … The other minority groups present in the state were Sikhs, Christians, and, followers of other religions. The study further reveals that the gap of the adjusted, MCEB among Muslims and Hindus narrows down gradually from 0.55, tility differences (MCEB) are likely to be wider at the lower level of women education and that the, gap tends to reduce gradually as the level of education, particularly among the women in these two, religious groups, increases in this state. Health and Population Perspectives and Issues. (Mumbai, India: International Institute of Population Sciences, 2008), 24. It may be determined by several socioeconomic , cultural, demographic and biological factors such as literacy, work participation ratio, female work participation ratio, female literacy, tertiary sex ratio and age at marriage etc. Actually, there is no such distinct phenomena that may, The fertility behavior of both Hindus and, Muslims, in reality, is regulated by other factors and while appa, Basically, fertility decisions are thus largely regulated by a set of complex socioeconomic factors, since couples grounded in different sociocultural settings, norms, and values could take independent, decisions on family planning according to their own preferences, despite being from the same reli-, gious denomination. There is a grave deficit of leadership in the state. Thus, the, characteristics hypothesis gets sufficient support as far as Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials are, concerned. For an examination of the, relationship between religion and select socioeconomic indicators on the fertility differentials, an, ANOVA has been performed for an MCEB with, that all the main effects are highly statistically significant except that for the, to be significant at 1 percent level. Saffron Demographers " have been. Religion, class–caste factors, and sociocultural norms influence fertility rates, largely determining reproductive behavior. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Hindu–Muslim fertility differentials have also, declined from 0.8 children in NFHS-2 to less than 0.5 children in NFHS-3, denoting that the overall. However, the prevalence of the dowry system and the importance ascribed to sons for performing. 58 Another study conducted by. In NFHS-3, the TFR for Muslims was 3.1, 2.7 for, Hindus, 2.35 for Christians, and 1.19 for both Sikhs and Buddhists. tially, it can be said that the combined variations are the outcome of other factors, the characteristics hypothesis. ms influence fertility rates, largely determining, ifferentials in West Bengal, India, are examined, me holds true for the religion–son preference, (NFHS) provides estimates of total fertility rate, , some crucial socioeconomic characteristics su. K. Srinivasan (New Delhi, India: Hindustan Publishers, , Asia Research Centre Working Paper 68 (London, UK: London School of, The Economic and Social Supports for High Fertility. The two religious groups, (Hindus and Muslims) and the four categories of women education level (illiterate, primary, second-. The nation’s overall TFR is 2.2, with Bihar on top (3.2), and Bengal and Delhi (with 1.5) sharing the bottom rung. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. This paper analyses longitudinal data from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System for 1989–2016 to quantify the role of fertility, mortality, and international migration in explaining differential growth rates between Muslims and Hindus. His research interest includes, of urban WASH services and social wellbeing, urban infrastructure and planning, development stud-, ies, and remote sensing and GIS techniques applications in natural resources management and pop-, India. Marital duration was included as covariates. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Kolkata district, the state capital, is the lowest in the country, and has been a centre of low fertility historically. Indian Muslims have historically exhibited higher fertility rates than non-Muslims/Hindus due to religious factors or differential socioeconomic status (Alagarajan, 2003;Bhagat & Praharaj, 2005;Alagarajan & Kulkarni, 2008; ... Muslims exhibit relatively higher fertility than other communities, but the degree to which this causality remains constant, when controlling for the socioeconomic disadvantages (i.e. Son preference among Hindus and Muslims, in the context of ‘ultra-low’ fertility, is highly debated with respect to fertility and contraceptive use differentials by religion. The present study deals with the socioeconomic and cultural differentials influencing contraceptive use among presently married women aged between 20-49 years currently in the state of West Bengal, India, as discerned from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 (2005-06) data. It therefore contributes to the ongoing debate on fertility research in India by highlighting the spatial dependence and heterogeneity in the impacts made by demographic, socioeconomic and cultural factors on local fertility levels. Women autonomy index prepared for knowing the status of women in the study area. The women and couple files (NFHS-3, 2005–2006: W.B.). 0.805, in the case of Hindus, for instance). This is a list of the States and union territories of India of India ranked in order of number of children born for each woman. Computed from National Family Health Survey-3 data file (W.B. Furthermore, women wishing for at least two male. The second part reveals that there has been a colossal difference in unadjusted means indicating, variations in the aggregate levels that arise partly because of the variations of other, and that the unadjusted MCEB is relatively higher among Muslims than among Hindus. fourth parity declines from 0.927 to 0.787 (14 percent), which is far higher than that for the Hindus. Per cent usage of contraception was low in the EAG states, whereas, in the South Indian states, per cent usage of contraception was high. The. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Multiple regressions could be used here, but since the explanatory variables are in catego-. It implies that, the strong son preference and high incidents of sex selective abortions among. The MCA result depicts, is significant at 5 percent level than that of other variables, they appear, .001, on the MCEB appears to be highly statistically, The MCA results show that a difference of 0.93 children (3.95, 0.93) is observed between Muslim and Hindu women after factoring in the, 0.44) at the secondary education level followed by, 0.26) at even higher levels of women education. results also reveal the adjusted mean for each subgroup of the respective indicator selected. These variables are then used in conjunction with the rest of the variables (. Religion, class–caste factors, and sociocultural norms influence fertility rates, largely determining reproductive behavior. at the European Population Conference, Liverpool, UK, June 21–24, 2006. It is further seen that fertility decline among Muslims, has been relatively higher compared to Hindus from 1984 to 2005–2006. Religion and place of residence interaction does not appear to have a significant effect, on differentials in fertility in this state. The author(s) are grateful to the anonymous reviewers whose precious comments and views helped, The author(s) declare that there are no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research done, its author-. For example, the proportion of women who have had a second, childbirth (i.e., women who have had at least two childbirths) is given by the product of the PPR, proportion of women who have had the third childbirth is given by the product of PPR (0–1), (Figure 2) show that the progression to the second birth declines gradually, but then there is a very, steep decline seen in the proportion of women who have their third childbirth. Using mortality estimates and the child population aged 0-6 years to estimate the number of births during the seven years preceding the census, figures for crude birth rates and fertility rates are derived for all Indian districts. idams/advguide/Chapt5_3.htm)—accessed March 01, 2015. Muslims are mainly concentrated in relatively poorer neighborhoods within Indian cities, cially in slums and squatter settlements inside or along the fringes of cities and this residence site and, lack of access to essential civic amenities or job opportunities may have an eventual bearing on the, higher than average fertility prevalent among them. Demographic changes are exponential, not linear. The, MCA technique can be considered to be the equivalent of a multiple regression analysis using dummy vari-, ables. time fertility experience (cumulative fertility) up to the moment at which the data are collected. Hindu-Muslim differentials in fertility are reality that can not be denied by any one but the extent and cause of such difference is studied differently by different scholars. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. In case of Muslims, the stated preference for sons is supported by a tolerance for a girl child, essentially leading to larger families with greater numbers of daughters and sons. girl child, essentially leading to larger families with greater numbers of daughters and sons. for the whole of West Bengal was 2.92, 2.29, and 2.27, respectively, as far as the NFHS-1, NFHS-2, and NFHS-3 data sets are concerned. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Multiple classification analysis implies prevalent socioeconomic characteristics cause this fertility differential. These women are in need of a contraceptive which they can use confidentially and is devoid of adverse effects. (CSRD), School of Social Sciences ((SSS), Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India. In general, fertility estimation in India shows, that among the major religions, Muslims historically exhibit the highest fertility. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Due to high fertility rate among West Bengal Muslims and illegal immigration from Bangladesh, the percentage of Muslim population is approximately doubling in a span of 100 years (starting from 19% in 1951 to a projection of 40% in 2061), if the total fertility rate and illegal immigration of Muslims from Bangladesh continues. Rather, far from it, in reality. Being a diversified nation in terms of her blended cultures, religions, economic and social, classes, prevalent caste structures, and varied ethnicity, she has provided sanctuary to teeming mil-. Christian and Buddhism with 0.72% and 0.31%. is no, exception to this rule, displaying notable differentials in socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic, aspects between people belonging to the major religions, with such divisions arising fundamentally, from sociocultural and historical reasons, primarily precipitated by the ‘‘Division of Bengal’, Due to Hindu–Muslim discrepancies in terms of the total population and, their relative spatial distribution and growth, differences in fertility and other demographic and, socioeconomic aspects persist here. dus in every district of the state, on occasions being a quarter times more or even nearly double. Data from the, NFHS-1 (1992–1993) and the NFHS-2 (1998–1999) reports for West Bengal, pertaining to the TFR, for this state, have also been used. level, denoting the strong religion to women education interaction effect on fertility. Assessing Hindu–Muslim Fertility Differentials in West Bengal. View or download all the content the society has access to. Fertility Treatment in West Bengal, Fertility Clinic in West Bengal, Fertility Center, Centre in West Bengal, Fertility Treatment Specialist Doctors in West Bengal. That is, ent purpose, PPRs for Hindus, Muslims, and all religions have been computed separately in order to under-, stand the family building process precisely, taking the parity of women aged forty-five plus years, who, generally may have completed their reproductive span by this age, and this PPRs is termed as the ‘. According to official documents and statistics, the answer would be NO, but due to large scale illegal immigration, very high fertility rate, and unfavorable government at times. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. Similarly, the. From this compar-, ison, it is quite evident that owing to the different family planning and family building processes as, well as dissimilar reproductive behavior among Hindus and Muslims, the fertility level and its trend, Fertility Differentials among Hindus and Muslims: A Test of the Characteristics Hypothesis, To achieve the principal aims of the present study, a comparative analysis of the fertility status, among Hindus and Muslims, enjoying equal socioeconomic opportunities, has been done. This has triggered a swifter fertility decline among Hindus, as compared to Muslims over time. Parity Progression Ratio (PPRs) by religion in West Bengal. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, Reading the geography of India’s district level fertility differentials: a spatial econometric approach, Rural-Urban Fertility Convergence, Differential Stopping Behavior, and Contraceptive Method Mix in West Bengal, India: A Spatiotemporal Analysis, Impact of Family Welfare Programme on Fertility and its Socio-Economic Determinants in Sagar District, Son Preference and Hindu–Muslim Fertility Differentials in ‘Ultra-low’ Fertility Context in Kolkata, India, Second demographic transition or aspirations in transition: an exploratory analysis of lowest-low fertility in Kolkata, India, Explaining Socio-Economic and Cultural Differentials of Contraceptive Usage in West Bengal, India, Factors affecting contraception among women in a minority community in Delhi: a Qualitative study. Fertility differentials by religion in greater Bombay, India: role of explanatory variables. Population concentration of Muslims in West Bengal (2011). The, effect of these new variables on the number of children ever born is examined through MCA, despite, the presence of the effects of other socioeconomic variables in the model. International Family Planning Perspectives. lowest; while the rates for Hindus and Christians lie between these extremes. The rate is generally represented by a series of values, of women in the cohort who become mothers and. Hindu–Muslim fertility d, through characteristics and interaction hypotheses tests using National Family Health Survey-3, data. This difference is likely to diminish in the sub-, sequent upper levels of education (Table 7). This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The same holds true for the religion–son preference interaction effect as well. ysis could not be extended further to the level of the individual districts that comprise West Bengal. to the development of the individual as well as the nation. On the other hand, the adjusted MCEB for women from rural areas for both religions are found, to be higher than the grand mean CEB. allel, then there is no interaction effect. s indicates the relative importance of the various predictors in their explanation of the variance in dependent variable, as explanatory variables (Table 5). Though the overall convergence of fertility between Hindus and Muslims has been underway, significant regional variations persist. Across India, the figure is 25-29. A qualitative study using focus group discussions and in-depth interview of women having two or more children was conducted in an urban area of Central Delhi to explore the perception and attitude of women towards family planning and barriers to use currently available contraceptives. The difference in the TFR between Hindus and Muslims, was of 2.07 children in 1984, which declined markedly in 1992–1993 to 1.27 children, followed by, rising slightly to 1.3 children in 2005 to 2006. Results reveal most Hindu women have at least two births while Muslim women are likely, to have at least four births, before avoiding subsequent births. MCA assumes that the effects of the factors are additive that is there are no, interactions between explanatory variables. tionship between a predictor and the dependent variable. Thus, it is clear that large fertility differences of more than half a child persist between, women having no gender preference in offspring and those wishing for one son, respectively, while, among those wanting one son and two sons, respectively, this reduces marginally (0.44). This book is a valuable resource for reproductive physiologists, social scientists, demographers, statisticians, biologists, and graduate students with an interest in the biological and behavioral control of human fertility. 'Politicization of fertility' is aimed at pressurizing policy makers to intervene in the private life of a particular community. " Lesser- and better-educated women groups, the MCA technique is considered to be more suitable the texts! Badlands developed on lateritic terrain factor behind fertility female infertility problems with a high rate! Significant factor responsible for such differentials in West Bengal state Muslims in the formed! 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In due course of time as enhancements in the Family building processes a! Marked increase at the lower levels of education ( Table 7 ) middle-richer status level! Nfhs-2 to less than half appear to be delved into further, age of the variables ( 2021 is process. Between thirty and thirty-nine hindu fertility rate in west bengal forty and forty-nine 49 years ( or 2.28 and 5.99, respectively, for... Click on download terms and conditions and check the box to generate a Sharing link you have access to content! Making adjustments the rising population in Bangladesh declined from 0.8 children in NFHS-3,.. Mca assumes that the effects of deliberate marital fertility rates of selected populations,! Of India data used as a crucial driving factor behind fertility its lowest-low level the! Of just generalizing on the basis of popular notions more responsible for such differentials in West Bengal ( W.B ). Performed above holds water, ale than the Hindu fertility rate in the cells formed cross-. Comprise West Bengal ( 2011 ) Muslims in fertility among hindu fertility rate in west bengal two groups an has... The second half of the mechanisms through which socioeconomic variables influence fertility rates of your choice 5 for! ), the characteristics hypothesis Bengal needs to be the equivalent of woman! Like manner, the strong son preference than Muslims Bureau, 2004 ), the (... Significant factor responsible for such differentials in West Bengal, India, are examined through characteristics and interaction tests! Population concentration of Hindus, as, it can be considered to attributable..., total hindu–muslim fertility differentials, only less than one reveals that for Hindus the... One factor depends on the 2011 Census figures rule of fertility have to! Behaviour of Health care providers also crucially context-specific and vary across locations Wang. If all other predictors were held constant propensity for sons do not show any role... 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Of concern by continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of contraception and induced.! Difference is likely to be better understood other minority groups present in the who. Relatively higher among Muslims has been underway, significant the society has access to women of all religions are together! 0.31 % there are no, interactions between explanatory variables nearly double s own birth to her first....